Having discussed several of the statistical issues regarding Mendelian randomization analyses, in this chapter we present four published examples of the use of Mendelian randomization from the literature, commenting on interesting features of the analysis which help to clarify the methodology and aid readers performing similar investigations.

Relevant papers to chapter:

Example 1, Section 5.1: B. Keavney et al., Fibrinogen and coronary heart disease: test of causality by 'Mendelian randomization'. Int. J. Epidemiol. 2006; 35(4):935-943.

Example 2, Section 5.2: N. Timpson et al., Does greater adiposity increase blood pressure and hypertension risk? Mendelian randomization using the FTO/MC4R genotype. Hypertension 2009; 54(1):84-90.

Example 3, Section 5.3: P. Kamstrup et al., Genetically elevated lipoprotein(a) and increased risk of myocardial infarction. JAMA 2009; 301(22):2331-2339.

Example 4, Section 5.4: B. Voight et al., Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction: a Mendelian randomisation study. The Lancet 2012; 380(9841):572-580.